If you love having birds in your garden all year-round, have a look at these tips for keeping them fed, safe, and happy as the snow comes down.
For more ideas, also see how to make a nesting box.
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Attract Wild Birds & Brighten Up Your Winter
Would you think I’m being melodramatic if I said I think having wild birds around in the winter saves human lives? Yes! But, when you live in a climate where over half your year is cold and a snow storm can sneak up at any time, anything that brings natural cheer is very welcome indeed.
I can recall instances where one, brilliant, red male cardinal landing on the snow-covered bird feeder single-handedly erased any February blues I was wallowing in.
If you can only manage to feed birds at one time of year, choose winter.
Winter Bird Needs
What Winter Birds Need
- They’re just like us! They need food, water, shelter, and a reliable internet connection. (Just checking to see if you’re really reading this.)
In the summer months, a main staple of a bird’s diet is insects and spiders. As the growing season continues, they add on fruits and berries. By winter, the options are more limited.
To feed the winter birds, create foraging opportunities (by leaving your plants to produce seeds in fall) and provide good quality bird seed. You want to provide as much nutrition (good fats) as possible for the least amount of effort by the birds.
Food for Winter Birds
It’s best to research food options to find what’s healthiest for the species in your area. Each species has its preferences for both types of food and feeding locations. Some will take seed from a feeder, others, like doves like to forage on the ground.
- Black-oil sunflower seed (these have the best meat-to-shell ratio)
- Shelled peanuts
- Suet (here’s a simple recipe)
- Good quality seed mix
- Nyjer/thistle seed
- Safflower seeds
- Leftover fruits and berries on trees and shrubs
- Corn – get cracked corn for smaller birds
- Millet (white is usually preferred, not red)
- Raisins or currants – presoak them in water to soften them up
Best case scenario, there are seeds and berries to forage. I let most of my flowering perennials go to seed and don’t trim them back until the spring for this purpose: the birds will dine on them through the cold winter months.
For commercial wild bird food options, I always recommend finding a reputable shop specializing in wild bird care. They will help you make informed choices and find good quality food and other supplies such as birdhouses and birdfeeders that are safe and beneficial to the birds. There’s a lot of junk out there, people!
Setup Feeders For A Variety of Birds
- Different birds use different types of feeders and eat different types of bird feed.
To attract a wide variety of winter birds, create several different feeding stations of various heights and styles. Let the big birds have their tall standing feeders, and give the smaller birds feeders that only accommodate their size and weights. The squirrels will decide which they prefer, whether you want them to or not.
Cleanliness Counts All Year-Round
Be sure to wash your feeders every week or two using 1 part water: 9 parts bleach and rinse thoroughly (of course). This will help prevent the spread of disease and stop mold from forming. I keep a few sets of feeders so I can put out fresh seed without waiting to clean the current feeders.
Also, clear off snow so there’s lots of room to stand and dine.
Suet / UnSuet-Suet
- Quality matters
- Easy to make your own
Suet is high in calories and great fuel for warmth, but not all suet products are created equal. Again, a reputable wild bird feed shop should have high quality suet. Cheaper ones contain fillers such as millet that do not benefit the birds.
Alternately, you can make your own homemade “unsuet-suet”, using peanut butter instead of lard (here’s my easy recipe). It takes only moments to prepare and I can tell you with complete certainty that the birds absolutely love it. How do I know? Besides the fact that they come in droves to the garden as soon as I hang a fresh batch up, they tweet about it too.
For the actual suet feeder, I like the style (pictured above) because it extends below the suet cage, providing support for bird tails. The less energy they have to expend while eating, the better.
- Have fresh water available: keep it from freezing with an outdoor heater.
I keep a recirculating pump running vigorously in the bottom of my shallow pond to prevent the water from freezing. This not only keeps my fish safe (they go dormant instead of freezing), but the birds and other wildlife are able to access water any time. I love seeing the various paw prints and bird tracks in the snow around pond each morning.
You can also use birdbaths to provide fresh water if you include an electric or solar water heater and change the water regularly. Click here to see an example of a heated birdbath at Amazon. com.
- Provide trees and shrubs for natural shelter. Make sure birdhouses are safe.
The best shelter is, of course, trees and shrubs, where the birds can rest and stay away from frigid weather conditions.
I also hang roosting pockets from tree branches. The smaller birds will huddle in them when it’s really cold and windy.
Early nesters or small birds seeking warmth may also use birdhouses in the winter. If you keep birdhouses outside year-round, Cornell Lab of Ornithology has very good information on the best choices for housing specific types of birds.
Most birdhouses are made for decorative purposes and are not actually safe or suitable for nesting birds—often trapping the fledglings inside (unable to reach the door) or designed without removable panels that enable seasonal cleaning. If you keep decorative ones outdoors, block off the doorways so there are no mishaps with unsuspecting birds.
~Melissa the Empress of Dirt ♛